Thank you for reaching out!
Depending on how you edit data in Maps for Office (Excel) i.e changing the value manually in the table, the data should update. This goes for PowerBI as well, although that is highly dependent on how the data is brought into PowerBI (if its brought in as a static table, then the dataset will not update, however if you bring it in as a database source it will update upon refresh).
For your last question, there is no way of converting a QGIS map into an ArcGIS Map to my knowledge. However you should be able to rebuild the map in Pro by brining in the individual layers and rebuilding the symbology and other map properties from there. Hope that helps!