Have you changed anything on the SQL Server side related to that listed Roads_Ramallah Feature Class, e.g. created some SQL database views etc, removed or added fields, thus changing schema?
At the end, do I need to delete the destination �??file geodatabase�?� and create another replica?
I don't know. The error indicates an issue processing some SQL statement.
I recently got a similar error when I tried to access in ArcGIS a query stored in Access via ODBC. The query was based on other queries, one of which was a Crosstab query. Although I wasn't hitting this Crosstab query directly in ArcGIS (only another query using the Crosstab query in Access as one of its datasources), ArcGIS also gave the "An invalid SQL statement was used" error. I didn't expect this to happen, but only exporting the query to a new table in Access, solved the issue. Clearly, there are some limitations to what SQL statements may be used in this specific case in combination with ArcGIS.
But this is all pretty much unrelated to your specific issue here I think.
This is a known issue with Desktop 10.2 for now:
[NIM094669 - Synchronizing replica after deleting 1000 or more records from parent geodatabasefails using ArcGIS Desktop 10.2]
You can use a previous version of ArcGIS Desktop to synchronize the Replicas as a workaround for now.
That looks like a pretty nasty bug, although deleting a thousand records in these kind of versioning environments, if properly managed, is probably not that common.
Would be nice to know if Jamal actually hit that 1000 record wall. There may still be other issues.
The layer that has a problem is with more than 1000 records
Meanwhile, I have another layer with about 240,000 records and had no problem when synchronized.
The potential 1000 record issue as mentioned in the bug report Asrujit pointed out, is not about the total number of records a Feature Class has, but about how many records you need to synchronize between the two replicas. E.g. if you deleted over 1000 records in the parent, and these now also needed to be removed from the child / relative replica, than you may run into this issue.
So the question is, did you delete over 1000 records from the layer having a problem synchronizing?