This is really perplexing me. Steps to reproduce:
Create a feature-service check-out (Create Local Copy for Editing) using any combination of client/server from 10.1 through 10.2.2.
Make a few edits, save and stop editing.
Trash your ArcMap document that referenced the checked-out edit. (This is the part where you reproduce a user error such as catastrophic computer failure, or they closed the map without saving it).
Of course, you've been down this road before so you know where the check-out feature service data is in .....\ArcGIS\FeatureEdits......
Right click on the geodatabase that held the checked-out feature data and your previous edits, and attempt to synch back to the SDE database that the FS sources from.
Failed: version not found....but it's there! I've tried this after cleaning out ALL OTHER versions, so there was no question of what version/replica to synch. Same error.
I can check in/out/in/out using Distributed Database tools hitting SDE directly all day long, move the checkout data to another computer, check it in, no problem.
So how do you recover a checked-out feature service geodatabase following some error or issue that caused the loss of the original ArcMap document? This happens to me a surprising number of times, a user for some reason will lose the map, either the computer/network just crashes or they fat-finger it and close it.
Or is it by design, that if you're editing a feature service, and Arc Map crashes, you've lost all of your edits?