"Could not load data from the data source. If you can correct the problem, press the refresh button to reload data. Possible problems can include bad network connection, invalid field, etc. The operation is not supported by this implementation"
Sorry for picking up in such an old issue, but I'm having a somewhat similar problem:
I have point layer created through an SQL statement executed directly in the PostgreSQL / PostGIS database and it doesn't appear in the data list in ArcGIS Catalog when I connect to the database.
I already registered and indexed the geometry column in the database, defined a primary key and it works well within QGIS.
I have tried the suggestion described above of "Add Query Layer" and it works fine!
I really don't understand why it doesn't show in ArcCatalog, because I have several datasets, spatial and non-spatial, with SDE geometries and PostGIS geometries, and I'm having no trouble with them...
Any thoughts on how to correct this?
An update on this:
Using the tool Database Management Tools > Geodatabase Administration > Register with Geodatabase of the ArcToolbox and explicity describe the full path to the table, since you can't choose it from the ArcCatalog browser, and it successfully registered the dataset and now it appears normally in the ArcCatalog browser. !