I noticed that in the third image (from the SDE geodatabase) that there are not feature extent coordinates (Top, bottom, left and right). The the second image (from the file geodatabase) has feature extent coordinates. That may be a direction to look into. I did see that the projections are the same.
Just an observation......
I tested in SQL Server and Oracle and got a different message when copying/pasting into the feature class in either. See attached screenshot. This error seems related to the other forum post that you have.
My process was: Start an edit session, open the file geodatabase feature class table, select all features, copy, then paste into the SDE feature class.
Hope this helps.....
I am wondering if it has to do with the fact that most of the roads are a single polygon and it is creating the errors. There are also a bunch of very small polygons that barely have geometry to them. I think that they may get collapsed when loaded into the SQL geodatabase as part of the check when loading data.
I have read you other post (http://forums.arcgis.com/threads/107598-Error-�??line-string-or-poly-boundary-is-self-intersecting�?...) and think that these issues are all related.
What is you try to split the massive road polygon into smaller pieces for loading?