Whether what you want is 'possible' depends on what exactly you're asking for. I can interpret your question in two different ways, and one is possible while the other isn't:
1. You want to filter the list by the device ID of the user's current device (that is, 'give me every survey submitted by my device'). The short answer is 'no'. I will enter this as an enhancement request, but currently the inbox query parameters can't check the device ID, so it would have nothing to check the field in your feature service against. Depending on your setup, you might be able to use the username variable; it wouldn't return all responses sent from that specific device, but would return all responses sent by that user. The syntax can be found here: Prepare for editing existing survey data—Survey123 for ArcGIS | ArcGIS
2. If you instead want to filter the list by the device ID of a specific device that may not necessarily be the one currently in use (that is, 'give me every survey submitted from X device'), this is possible, although you will need to have the device ID for Survey123 on that specific device, which you should if you're collecting the data in the first place. The query would look something like this, presuming your device ID is stored in the field named 'deviceid':
Thank you for your reply and I'm looking for an answer for number 1.
I want to be able to see only surveys submitted by my current device. I'll try to look into your alternatives and will be waiting for new developments on the enhancement request. Hope it comes forward.