Is there any information on the "calculate" field type? It is listed as a valid field type in the XLSForm "types" worksheet, but I can't find any information in the Survey123 help on this. And the "Calculations" sample uses the "calculation" column, but does not use the "calculate" field type.
As described in XLSForm essentials—Survey123 for ArcGIS | ArcGIS , calculate questions are designed to hold the results of calculations based on other questions. For example, if you are inventorying vehicles, you can have separate questions for the number of passenger cars, trucks and cargo vans. you can have a fourth question that is the total number of vehicles that adds together the previous 3. Calculate questions are not displayed on the form, as they are automatically calculated without the survey taker's interaction. More information on the type of calculations that can be done in a form is at Formulas—Survey123 for ArcGIS | ArcGIS .