Unfortunately, the Voronoi Map tool is not available in ArcGIS Pro. Most Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) tools from ArcMap are available as charts in ArcGIS Pro, but the Voronoi Map is not one of them.
Hi, I just noticed that you were asking about creating a Voronoi Map from polygons rather than points.
If you just need the geometry of the Voronoi Map and do not need the local statistics, you can do the following:
This will give the same polygons as the Voronoi Map ESDA tool in ArcMap. Again, it will not have the local statistics, but it will create the same polygons.