Is this possible? It really is a pain to not be able to create a legend until all the values from a domain have been entered in by field staff. This seems like it should be possible, but I can't figure it out. I saw a thread about making changes in the JSON in the AGOL Assistant?
Yeah, you'll need those other values explicitly defined in the symbology, and the way the web map works, it won't add values that don't exist in the data already.
You can edit the JSON to get around this for sure, but you could also open the web map in Pro, change the symbology there, then save the web map. Probably the easier route, as the JSON definitions for symbology can be quite unwieldy.