We are running Server 10.3.1. Our router and firewall was reset over the weekend and our website went down. We redirected port 80 to port 6080 (the ArcGIS Server) and our data and maps are viewable on the website again. We can see the REST services directory from the web on http://gis.ourwebsite.com/arcgis/rest. The problem is, none of the other files or directories in our wwwroot folder (which contains the arcgis web adapter) are accessible from that URL. For example, http://gis.ourwebsite.com/file.ext returns a 404 error. We have hyperlinks to these files on our website.
I've tried enabling directory browsing on our default website directories in IIS 8.5, but this hasn't helped. Every folder underneath "arcgis" in this screenshot is inaccessible from the web.
I'm unsure that I understand the path you've undertaken to attempt to resolve this issue. If you're using the web adaptor, the web adaptor will proxy between the external facing ports 80 and 443 to the GIS Server on ports 6080 and 6443. No NATting/port mapping/redirects are required in that sense. What you've done is ship incoming requests to the GIS Server, running on port 6080. None of the documents in the screenshot above are hosted on the GIS Server - they're all hosted on your IIS instance.
The first thing you need to do is undo the port mapping you've set up at the router end (from port 80 to port 6443). By setting that mapping, you're bypassing your web server entirely. Ports 80 and 443 on the router should translate to ports 80 and 443 on your IIS web server. The web adaptor will handle proxying from the web adaptor instance (called ArcGIS) to your GIS Server.
I think we figured out that we were rerouting directly to the ArcGIS server. Now we're trying to figure out what's going on with port 80 on our firewall. It should go right to the wwwroot folder, but it's either timing out or leading to our firewall login page.
We are. Everything is working as it should from localhost. For some reason our firewall has decided to block incoming traffic to port 80. We CAN access the ArcGIS server from the web on port 6080.