Yes, you absolutely can do this. This is actually something that can be done in ArcGIS Pro that cannot be done in ArcMap. ArcGIS Pro allows for you to seamlessly interact with services hosted within you ArcGIS Enterprise environment through portal connections. The first thing you want to do is to make a connection to your portal from ArcGIS Pro, and set this portal as the "active portal". See the following document that explains how to do this within ArcGIS Pro:
Once the connection has been made, and the portal connection that you have made is set as your active portal, you can drag and drop services from ArcGIS Enterprise into an ArcGIS Pro Map using the "Portal" tab within the "Catalog" pane.