I don't think that is available at the database level if you have dba privs and are using operating system authentication.
Maybe use database authentication as a different user or as a safety switch create & point to views as a different user with database authentication instead of the sources directly.
@BillFox has pretty much nailed it - if you have database owner privileges or you own the schema that you're working against, then there's nothing that I can think of to stop you from accidentally deleting tables.
Ideally, you should have a login with elevated privileges that you only use for administrative purposes, and for everything else you use another login with the appropriate privileges (read or write) for whatever activity you're undertaking. Unfortunately it isn't really possible to get this level of granularity if you're required by your organization to use Windows Authentication.
Thanks for your suggestions.
I understand in Enterprise GDB, directly in ArcGIS Desktop/Pro, there is no option to 'lock' feature classes. I was just looking at something to prevent accidental deletion from myself as I am the table owner with all the privileges. For editing and viewing workflows, I do have other database users (with authentification) with correct privileges. Nothing much more I can do I think.