Windows Server 2016
I've installed ArcGIS 10.4.1 on Windows Server 2016. When I connect to the server through Remote Desktop, ArcMap crashes on launch. ArcCatalog will launch while connected in RDP. However, I can launch ArcMap without any issues when physically on the server. I can open ArcMap on the server and then remotely connect and it will continue to function, but it will not launch a new instance.
I'm pretty sure I initially installed it while connected through RDP, but I uninstalled and reinstalled while not in RDP and that didn't change anything.
Any ideas? I've hit a dead end. Thanks.
I assume that the login you use for the remote desktop connection are the same when you login to the same server physically? If in case you are not which is highly unlikely it might be a user profile issue.
Irrespective of the above mentioned case can you try to create a separate test login and see if the issue persists in both the cases (i.e. physically logging in and remotely logging in)
Not sure if this will solve the problem, but I have identified video card issues that caused ArcMap to crash, but it was the opposite of your scenario. An enduser reported ArcMap crashing when logging into the physical computer. I remoted into the same machine (RDP) and ArcMap worked as expected. The enduser then logged into the problematic computer from another machine (RDP) and again ArcMap worked as expected. It turns out the video card on the actual machine did not meet standards and caused ArcMap to crash. Not saying this is your issue, but just something to check.
Also if ArcMap 10.4.1 runs in physical computer it is not supported (see https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/system-requirements/10.4/arcgis-desktop-system-requirements.htm )
What's the graphic card ? Is driver graphic card upgraded? In rdp Windows 2016 there are new features that can create problem with software previously released
Have you further info in event viewer windows ?