When connecting through the R bridge to data within ArcGIS, for fields that are of type domain, how do you expose the text so text data is read into R? Currently I can only see the numerical aspect of the domain data.
By numerical aspect, do you mean the range of the domain, and you'd like to get back the coded values? Could you describe a little bit more about your use case? I'm happy to look into it and see if we either have a way to work with the full domain information, or create an issue for this.
For the time being, a possible workaround would be to use the DomainToTable tool to convert the domain data in question into a table. You could do so in a Modelbuilder model, then feed the resulting table in as an input to your R tool, where you could interact with it like any other table (using arc.open + arc.select).
Retrieving data ...