Many times I publish feature services from ArcMap (10.4.1) with the button Share As to my AGOL account.
I noticed that if the layers in the mxd are a lot, and somehow heavy (many geometries and many fields), the publishing processes sometimes throw errors. So, I always split my mxd in many different mxds with each one or two layers.
While using this strategy I am able to finish the whole publishing process, after a "published succeeded" message, when I enter my AGOL and see my feature layers in the web map they are empty (no geometries nor attributes).
The only this that have worked so far was to hide some fields in my layers before publishing them, and, after publishing them, I am able to see them correctly.
I know there might be limitations due to the number of records/geometries, but it should also be stated that having too many fields will cause the feature layers not to upload correctly, although the publishing process from ArcMap does not throw any error. In my specific case, this happened (e.g.) with a polygon shapefile with 415 records, and 20 fields. It does not seem so much to me, also considering the fields are 50% text and 50% short intger.