What is the uncompressed size of the raster (Right Click raster > Properties > Source)? From the same source tab, what is the min/max values of the raster? How was the raster created? Are you able to identify pixels with the Identify tool?
How did you build pyramids on the raster? Did you use Build Pyramid geoprocessing tool, or let ArcMap/Catalog build pyramid when you first added/previewed the raster. I understand it takes some time but you can try re-building pyramids using geoprocessing tool (Toolboxes\Data Management Tools\Raster\Raster Properties\Build Pyramids).
What kind of raster is it?
You can set the pyramid resampling method from Environment Settings > Raster Storage > Pyramid resampling technique when building pyramid from geoprocessing tools.
Hi. I'm having the same problem. The rasters display at 1:500,000 and below. Above 1:600,000 they do not display. I ran the Build Pyramid tool and recreated pyramids successfully. However the problem still persists.