While I successfully created geodatabase with ArcDesktop 10.1 and postgreSQL 9.0.5, I came to the "set the data source for all layers to the new workgroup geodatabase" step.
I copied the layer into geodatabase, and as I checked the postgresql schema, the table is successfully created. However when I tried to set the data source and pointed to the geodatabase, the error popped up:
One or more layers failed to draw:
Low Density Residential: Attribute column not found [planning.sde.CitizenPlanningProposal]
For the record. the original data source is the the same one being copied to the geodatabase. In other words, the data source set to a certain layer, and I copied this source layer into postgresql, and point the data source to the new location in postgresql, the error appears.
I checked the field in the layer's attribute table and the fields being created in geodatabase, they are all the same.
It's hard to tell what may be wrong, but the first thing you need to do is stop loading data as the SDE user. The SDE user should be reserved for geodatabase maintenance. Instead, you need to create one or more users to own the spatial data, then load data into those users' tables.