We have customer data in our production SQL database. I'm wondering if there is a way to connect ArcMap to the SQL database table with our customer data and directly geocode the customer addresses and insert the spatial data back into the SQL database?
Starting at 10.1 you can connect to SQL Server as a standalone database (non-geodatabase) you can read the addresses from there. After the addresses are geocoded, the entire table can be exported to the standalone database. Editing data, however, is limited to geodatabases.