I am looking to extract/clip the grid polygon that are completely filled by the raster in the background (yellow). How can I do this in ArcGIS? Basically, the clipping result will give me a grid polygon with grids that were completely filled by the raster.
Convert the raster to a polygon, then clip your grid by that new polygon. Compare the areas of the resulting grid cells and delete any that aren't the same as before.
may even be faster to select and delete them individually if i'm honest.