The issue should be fixed with a ArcGIS Desktop 10.5.1 client. There is no need to "update" anything. If you are still experiencing an issue I recommend you open an Esri support case for an analyst to review the behavior.
When I try to open the attribute table for the data layer, ArcMap instantly crashes. I can view the data properties, but if I attempt to add values in symbology from the dataset, ArcMap crashes.
Data Type: File Geodatabase Feature Class
Feature Class: M100TaxPar
Feature Type: Simple
Geometry Type: Polygon
Coordinates have Z values: No
Coordinates have measures: No
It's a fairly large dataset, and makes up the bulk of my map. It's roughly 20,000 rows of data in Excel. I had no problem with it in 10.4, it just started happening when I updated to 10.5.1.
For one of my users in 10.4.1, it is a public land survey layer of just over 2 million records served from a versioned Oracle geodatabase. He was using the selection tool to graphically select anywhere from 6 to 70+ records, opening the attribute table and then highlighting a subset to delete. Then he would close the table... crash. If he left the table open, no problems repeating that workflow over & over for the rest of the session. I don't have 10.5.1 up yet to test, unfortunately.
Click the link that I provided and search for "BUG-000101333".
If you still have the issue, I would create a new Esri support case and review it with an analyst.