After performing the license maintenance update in 10.8.1, both in Server and Portal, we confront a problem with Survey123. When we use Survey123 Connect to republish or publish a new survey, both hosted service, it does not allow us and gives us the following error: Error in opening workspace. Code 500.
We performed different tests:
1. publish from Survey123 on different computers and the result was the same error.
2. We downloaded the latest version of Survey123 3.12, we went back to republish and publish a new survey and it still gave the same error.
3. We published from ArcGIS Pro and Desktop and we were able to publish.
Are you able to apply similar fix to your issue from this previous posted solution?
I would suggest you to open a ticket with Esri Support to have them looking into the details of your environment setup and configuration for any potential issues on the server side.