I am having a very frustrating issue that is exporting data to a pdf outside of data frame. In the layout view it looks fine, but when I export to pdf the layers somehow are exporting. I have narrowed down the problem to annotation. If I turn off annotation layers, then the map exports correctly. Since this is not a solution, because I need the annotation, does anyone know a fix for this issue? I have SP4 v10.0
I have come across this issue as well. For me it was fixed with a patch at ArcGIS 10 SP 2. One thing I did notice was that it was only affected when there was annotation, but more specifically ONLY when the data frame was rotated. If the data frame was not rotated and there was annotation, it would export to PDF and print fine. Also, it seemed to only happen with MXD's that were created pre-ArcGIS 10. This is the PATCH that tech support had me install that seemed to work. However, this was a patch for SP2 which means it should be incorporated in SP4. Try creating an empty ArcGIS 10 MXD and then copy all of the layout elements from the old mxd to the new. Then export to PDF and see if it works.
There is a whole discussion on the same problem here.