I am preparing an app that will store point data with the geolocation and some attributes from a form. Can I download the data as a feature class to be analysed in my ArGis Desktop?
Yes, you can start with the sync enabled featureService layer. So basically publish your point feature service on the ArcGIS Server or ArcGIS Online.
1) Add your feature service layer
2) Create features with attribute data and perform edits.
3) At this point you have two options
You can look into our sample "Add and edit features" which demonstrates 1 and 2
Option a) Download the feature service locally using GeodatabaseSyncTask. This way you will get a SQL lite geodatabase and you can convert that to file geodatabase using a GP tool in ArcMap. For downloading geodatabase locally using feature service layer you can use our sample "Local geodatabase editing". In this sample the first step is to download the geodatabase locally. Rest of the stuff from the sample you wouldn't need if you are using the above approach.
Option b) If you have access to the original dataset with which the feature service was created. You can directly bring that to ArcMap and further analyse.