In ArcGIS Pro I can export a Layout to Tiff, but according to the help it is not possible to do this with a world file or as a GeoTiff Export a Map or Layout :
For maps, choose whether to generate a World File. The world file is used to contain georeference information so the image export can be used as raster data in ArcGIS Pro or other GIS applications. This option is unavailable for 3D view and layout exports.
I note this is the same with ArcMap - unless you purchase the additional Production Mapping extension Export Layout to GeoTiff
Esri Production Mapping allows you to export a page layout view to GeoTIFF. GeoTIFFs are TIFF files that contain spatial reference information.
It would be good to have this functionality in the standard product.