I have a large quantity of hi-resolution images in NITF format. When I open them with ArcMap, only a subset of each image is displayed. The same occurs if I do any processing on them. The output is only a subset of the original image. If I open the nitf images with other programs then they display correctly. This includes opening them in ArcGIS Explorer. After much suffering and animated discussion with colleagues, we identified a pattern.
We had multiple computers with different versions of ArcGIS Desktop, including 10.2, 10.1 w/ sp1, and 10.1. The nitf images display incorrectly in 10.2. They display incorrectly in 10.1 w/ sp1. They display correctly in version 10.1. Removing the service pack from the computer with 10.1 + service pack also restored its ability to view the images correctly. It appears that service pack 1 for version 10.1 broke the reader for nitf extents somehow. This problem persists in version 10.2
An update... I have some other hi-res imagery in nitf format, from the same original source but at a later date. Those images appear to open normally, without being clipped in ArcMap 10.2. Perhaps it is not a general nitf problem but one specific to a certain version of nitf or some specific parameter? I am not familiar enough with the nitf format to identify the differences that might be leading to this problem.
Problem identified. It was the aux files. Apparently when the nitf images were first opened it was with an older version of ArcMap, which created aux files. The newer versions of ArcMap seemingly read those aux files incorrectly and do not update them either. Deleting all of the old aux files resulted in the images opening correctly with their full extent.