Yes, the Survey123 app will preserve any EXIF data associated with your existing photos. You can use the Pulldata () function to extract the EXIF metadata and write to a field. Ismael Chivite wrote this Blog Post to explain this functionality in more detail.
There is also an EXIF sample survey available through the Survey123 Connect app that will get you up and running with this feature quickly.
When a photo taken with a different app is attached to a record in a survey, all EXIF data is removed. I'm looking for a way to capture this data and write it to the feature service.