Even thought you have Excel installed you need to install the Microsoft Access Database Engine 2010 Redistributableas Microsoft has discontinued support for the Office 2007 drivers noted in the article. This package will install a set of components that can be used to facilitate transfer of data between 2010 Microsoft Office System files and non-Microsoft Office applications. You might need to exit ArcGIS and excel for this to work after installing.
One other note, I believe you need to download and install the 32-bit version of the Microsoft Access Database Engine 2010 Redistributable even for 64-bit systems on ArcGIS Desktop and Pro.
Another approach, given your worksheet has a simple structure, is to export the Excel worksheet as a CSV file and then use native ArcGIS connection to the CSV file to import data.