If by "query / identify tiles" you mean features as if it were a Map Service, the answer is no. You can store more attributes in the vector tile data by highlighting fields on the ArcGIS Pro layers, but they are accessible only for styling / labeling as far as I know.
Depending on your use case, you may want to publish a feature service alongside your vector tiles (with invisible or blank symbology) for dynamic popups and alike.
@MikeQuetel1 thanks for the link above, but that's for using a vector tile layer in Pro, not within AGOL or Portal web maps.
To provide some cross posting this request is also asked in the below locations: