are the machines the exact same (memory, video etc) except for windows 10?
Quick fix... go to the machine that isn't failing and remove anything that isn't necessary
If there is no crash message, then it could be the project and where files are located... if they aren't the same, then a rebuild might be in order.
Also... if any of the files are not stored locally, then it might be a communications problem between the computer and the network. There is no one 'fix' that accounts for a project to crash and none have been associated with windows 10 that didn't have another root cause.
All of my troubleshooting efforts rebuilding several times repathing and moving lose layers to gdbs to limit the amount of locations is starting to point to a windows caching issues or a drop in network connection.
check this thread and other threads relating to image etc caches if you are using lots of them
also go to your command prompt (any one will do) and run the following line to see what some of your cache settings are.
This one is for a laptop
C:\ArcPro\bin\Python\Scripts>wmic cpu get L2CacheSize, L3CacheSize