ArcGIS Server 10.3.1 Linux version RHEL 6.7, SELINUX=permissive, not running web adaptor.
Upgraded two boxes running this configuration this past weekend to RHEL 6.8, after upgrading the PublishingTools failed to start and services were throwing the error "Could not create object 'esriCarto.MapServerObjectFactory." We rolled back to RHEL 6.7 and everything started working again. We have a third box with the same configuration that did not get updated and it didn't have any problems.
Obviously our problems were solved with the rollback but just wanted to put this out there in case anyone else runs into something similar.
This is likely an issue with some internal changes made at 6.8 of RHEL that affect ArcGIS Server. My suggestion is to stay at 6.7 until thorough testing as been done at 6.8.
This is due to a bug related to the version of Xvfb used (1.17)
One workaround would be to run the following command:
yum downgrade Xvfb
Then restart the ArcGIS Server and it should run smoothly.