I have a model that I want to run hourly on ArcGIS Server but I don't have a full understanding of how the model is going to work without the associated tools installed on the server as well. Do I have to install ArcGIS on the server to get this to work? All of the help I can find talks about doing this on a normal windows computer (with ArcGIS) but not a GIS Server. Also, I am using ArcGIS 10.4.1. so publishing geoprocessing tasks/tools is an issue.
Have you looked at this blog? It describes how to run a model at a prescribed time. You'll need to do this using a script, though, but there's minimal coding involved as you're just importing the model, which is what does the work. Since Server has all of the same tools that Desktop has, you should be able to call on the Python included with the install of Server so you can import your toolbox with your model and run the model.
What issues are you seeing publishing geoprocessing services? Have you installed the publishing patch? I don't think there's anything specific to publishing geoprocessing services, other than performance.
You can't (or if you can, you shouldn't) publish a GP service from a Desktop version different from your Server version.
Can I use ArcGIS 10.4.1 for Desktop to publish a service to an earlier version of ArcGIS Server?
Generally, you can publish services to a 10.1 or 10.2 version of ArcGIS Server using a 10.4.1 version of ArcGIS for Desktop. However, you will not be able to take advantage of any new 10.4.1 functionality until your server is upgraded to 10.4.1.
If you're publishing a geoprocessing service, the ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS for Server versions must match.
The blog Jonathan Quinn mentions is a good reference for scheduling tasks and yes standard Desktop tools are available with a Server install too. Only in case you installed other modules and you import them in your script, these modules should be installed in server too.
I apologize for the late response to this. I've been on a fire assignment for the past couple of weeks and had to put everything on hold. Thank You Johnathan and Xander for your help. You've helped answer my question. The documentation makes sense to me and I can't wait to run my script. For some reason my database connection has slowed dramatically, so its been difficult to run any final tests. Will have to debug it and find out what's going on. will let you know when I get this script running successfully. My agency is also talking about the possibility of upgrading everything to 10.5 so we can start publishing geoprocessing services again.