We are running ArcGIS 10.2.2 intending to upgrade to 10.4.1 in a couple of months. Since SDEBinary will be going away at some point, and we won't be able to create SDE Views at 10.4.1, I want to start migrating from SDEBinary to SQL Geometry for our feature classes. Will Map Services need to be republished if the feature classes they point to are migrated from SDEBinary to SQL Geometry? We have about 100 map services with the same layers symbolized at various scales so I'm hoping we don't have to do anything other than stop the service, migrate the storage and restart the service. Does anyone know? If I don't hear back I'll do so testing.
BUMP (I'm still interested in the answer)
Also, do map services have to be republished when a fields has been added to a feature class if the new field doesn't need to be referenced in the map service?
I don't think you'll need to do anything with the map service after updating the geometry type. The only thing you'll probably need to deal with is locks on the data, which you'll get around by stopping the services.
For your other question, they don't need to be republished, but you won't be able to add a field if the option to disable schema locking isn't checked within the map service properties. Lots of negatives there, so to add a field while a service is using the data, disable schema locking.