Vertica is not a supported database by esri. Best scenario is for esri to add Vertica as a supported database. Secondary option is to allow OLE DB connections in Pro. Per esri support, there is no way to connect to Vertica in ArcGIS Pro. ArcMap can only connect via an OLE DB option, which is also not available in Pro.
There is a similar idea in "ideas", except that is for Access and personal geodatabases. This is specific to Vertica.