I have various map services that I have created from Desktop (all is 10.3.1) all services were created successfully, without errors/warnings during the Analyze phase, and the message "published successfully" crowding every try.
When you say "can't see" and "nothing displays" - are you unable to see the map services in your REST services directory period (e.g. https://gisServer/arcgis/rest/services), or, nothing displays when you try to use the services?
Greetings Chris, REST endpoints seem normal, but the services do not display anything. They are literally "blank". In ArcMap I can see the service in the TOC, but no legend, and no features, so your second assertion is correct.
This may not be the reason, but it would be good to rule out as a possible issue.