Yes, it is possible. You will need to deploy a new site in cloud builder and choose "GIS Server". The option to do this is not available when you choose "ArcGIS Enterprise" to setup a base deployment. After adding a GIS Server to your base deployment or as standalone GIS Server, the Geodatabase button will not be greyed out
Took me a while to figure that out... ArcGIS documentation need to be improved here.
So this way you can register a database with your site. You can enable an Azure SQL Database as Enterprise Geodatabase. You can also register an existing SQL Server database in case you have SQL Server running on a virtual machine. When using Azure SQL as Enterprise Geodatabase it is required to use cloud builder to do this in order to have a fully supported environment.
I get that it works with a stand alone ArcGIS Server site, my issue is that I would like to have my enterprise geodatabase register with ArcGIS Enterprise base installation in order to serve the featureclasses in my portal with out having to incur extra charges in Azure and Licensing for an additional ArcGIS Server site. I manage to created the Azure SQL Database and enable geodatabase using Azure Portal and ArcGIS Desktop. I also manage to register it with my Enterprise base deployment using ArcGIS Desktop the same as if I was doing it on premise. But as you pointed out this is not supported.
Would this be supported?
Hopefully someone from Esri Inc can answer this. I can imagine that the preferred architecture in terms of performance and scalability is having an extra site with role GIS Server next your existing base deployment. Yes, having this extra VM and GIS Server license will incur extra charges. By design cloud builder might prevent you from running map services accessing an enterprise geodatabase on your base deployment to enforce Esri best practices. I'm interested to hear whether this is indeed the case. Indeed you can achieve your goal by executing the steps you describe, but this takes more time and to me doesn't feel the way to go. Well, I'm curious to hear from others. Interesting question.
I created Azure SQL Database and managed to connect to ArcGIS Enterprise (Portal, Server) and Desktop in my local machine. I created Azure SQL Database, registered it as Enterprise GDB (SDE). In Portal VM, I need to install Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio and I can connect to Azure SQL Server. I did not use the Cloud Builder and it works on my side.
You enable the Enterprise GDB from your local PC's ArcGIS Desktop but the ArcGIS Enterprise is deployed in Azure correct? Otherwise the latency between the Azure SQL Database and your base deployment would be to great for production.
Yes, I have also ArcGIS Desktop installed in Azure VM as well so I can actually run everything in my VM. But right now I am using Azure SQL Database to store all the data so that it is easy for me to access the data (in Desktop (local) and Portal). I do not need to turn my VM if I only want to access the data with Desktop and I do not have multiple copies of the data as all stored in Azure SQL Database. Back to your question, I think it is possible to enable Azure SQL Database and register to base deployment.
+1 for someone who would like to have the ability to spin up a Geodatabase in Azure SQL and tie it directly to the base deployment over spinning up an entirely new GIS Server site.