It seems that the following code does not delete the record in the .dbf file. Instead it is only marked for deletion:
If you load the shapefile in ArcMap afterwards you'll get this warning message:
There was a problem drawing the shapefile. Drawing aborted.
If you look into the table you will still see the feature which was deleted in the ArcGIS Runtime app (there it isn't displayed anymore). I think what is missing is a kind of pack function call for the .dbf file during the closing of the ShapefileFeatureTable.
I found this behaviour in Version 100.9 (WPF) but I think it might have existed in the versions before. I also tested it in Version 100.11 (WPF) with the same result.
Deleting records from a shapefile table will cause errors, you have to delete the feature itself, then the record will be deleted from the table. This can be confirmed by trying it manually in either arcmap or arcgis pro
Thanks for your quick response.
Perhaps I'm missing something but I think in the ArcGIS Runtime SDK you can only delete a feature via its feature table. At least I did not find a Delete method or something like that on the class 'Feature'.
In my ArcGIS Runtime app the shapefile works as expected even after deleting a feature.
I'm already in touch with the ESRI support about this case and they digged up a bug report for the ArcGIS Runtime Android SDK: BUG-000117942
It's very likely that I stumbled across the same issue in the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for .NET.