You would have to create a Geoprocessing Tool that takes a shape file and imports it, and then publish the tool to your server. You can then call this GP tool from the runtime.
I take it I could create the GP tool in python. I guess I would need to figure out how to strip the fields from the polygon geometry of the shapefile and then populate with new fields that match what will be in the final ArcSDE database, so it would need to happen before importing it into the database. So really, I'd need to create two tools probably; one to strip the fields and then one to import it.