Can you reveal a little more about your use case? Do you want to apply multiple definition queries to each featureclass ( for instance to create multiple maps) or do you have a set of definition queries and each query should be applied to a specific layer?
What logic do you have to set the query definition to a layer and what will you be using as input? The queries are stored somewhere?
I made this as a suggestion 6 or 7 years ago. I would love to see the ability to create a Group Definition Query.
At this time the answer is not likely. Unless someone comes up with a python script for it. But it make take longer to write that than to simply do it in Catalog.