Was asked this as part of a pre-interview questionnaire for an analyst position. I’ve only geocoded using address locators off of tables that already had addresses or lat/long info but this question has me stumped. I did think of maybe doing something like a feature to point operation on something like a parcel layer that may contain address data but don’t know if this would be the proper alternative.
So if the question is how do you geocode without an XY and/or LAT/LONG information in the addrees database, then one presumes that there are addresses in the address database. If this is true, you have options.
Now if there are no addresses, no XY, no LAT/LONG, then the results are a little bit more fuzzy. You can use ArcGIS Insights, enable location on the address database table, and use Geography.
Hope this helps!