I am testing the transition to Pro for a feature service that has been published from ArcMap for a few years. In ArcMap I had to ensure that the SDE account had the proper privileges in order to be able to be edited through the feature service. If the SDE account did not have the correct privileges, I would receive the error "Enabled Feature Access capabilities do not match feature layer user privileges" and I would be unable to continue with the publishing process. This was helpful as it caught the error early on.
I have created a Pro aprx file that has an SDE connection that only has view privileges to the data and no editing capabilities. I can publish this map to Pro without any errors preventing the map from being published. Now when I use this feature service in a 3rd party application that needs edit privileges to the SDE data I DO see an error in the ArcGIS Server (AGS) Manager logs.
Why does Pro allow me to publish SDE data as a feature service when ArcMap (seemingly more correctly) prevents the same data from being published to AGS in the first place?