Are you able to share the map with us?
1. If you export some of the SDE source polygons to a file geodatabase, and add the data to ArcGIS Pro, do you see the jagged lines?
2. If the lines are not jagged in the File geodatabase, create a Mobile Map Package of it. Are the lines jagged in the mobile map package?
If the lines are jagged, please send the source file geodatabase to me.
I sincerely apologize for the pain here - I understand your frustration.
Mark has some good suggestions to try, but I think best course of action is to get a support incident started. I have already reached out to support to get this going. If you have already started down this path, please let us know the support incident number you have.
Questions I'd like to follow up (either here or as part of the support conversation)
Does the source feature have True Curves in the geometry? Given the back and forth that I've read above - that the source data looks fine, but when packaged into an MMPK you get jagged lines when viewed either Pro or Explorer - i wonder if your data contains true curves in the geometry that could be lost during the MMPK publishing process?
Hope to get this resolved soon for you,
Retrieving data ...