I recently deleted an unnecessary field from a layer within a hosted feature service and now that layer will no longer load in Collector for Windows. The same feature service and maps will load as expected in Android version and I have not tested iOS.
I attempted to add the field back into the layer (same data type and name) but that did not resolve the problem. My guess is that it's looking for a specific scheme structure and when it's not finding it (with the fields in a specific order) it throws the error. I have considered editing the JSON to move the field back into the position that it was originally but am always hesitant to make those kinds of changes.
Unfortunately I seem to run into a lot of these uniquely Windows related issues with Collector that I can't replicate on other platforms. No way around that currently though as this feature service is being used by our fire department who operate on Toughbooks running Windows 10.
I have attached the error message I am given.