In ArcMap, one can simply right click on a feature class using Catalog and select properties to view the layers XY Coordinate System information and change it if need be.
This simple, exceptionally important functionality appears to be missing from ArcGIS Pro:
If I add the feature class to a map and view the properties, I can see this information (but, of course, cannot edit it):
I cannot even begin to tell you how often I have to troubleshoot layer projection issues for individuals. Being able to quickly access and edit this information is a must.