Is it possible to change the data which is listed after a filled survey123-form in the browser?
I believe you're asking if it is possible to edit the data in a submitted survey? Not yet, but this functionality is coming very soon. You will be able to edit existing survey data in the Survey123 field app.
Hope this helps,
Please checkout the Survey123 for ArcGIS v2.0 beta, which is now available. It supports editing existing surveys.
Survey123 for ArcGIS v 2.0 (Beta Available)
Retrieving data ...