it will be very helpful for example lock some column key before export it for editing
You can't lock a column, only a table. ArcGIS creates the locks required for the operation by default.
but if i had a table with key( an identifier) column that shouldn't change and i want to export data --> modify only geometry --> re-import data
( the problem is if someone edit the key --> i can't import data correctly cause i use script to add it to database)
i think that esri think to add this function in their feature version
Databases can do any number of amazing things to prevent certain operations (at a performance cost, of course). Shapefiles are NOT database entities, and therefore don't have any of these options available. Even if you requested this enhancement through Ideas, and it was implemented, it's not likely that it would be implemented on shapefiles.
Retrieving data ...