We recently upgraded from ArcGIS Server 10.0 SP5 to 10.2.2. Since then any existing cached map services that contain a mosaic dataset are no longer visible in ArcMap or Catalog 10.1 SP3 (i.e., through the SOAP endpoint) but are visible through the REST endpoint. We have confirmed that the Image Extension license has been provisioned and installed on the servers.
Is there a compatibility issue with ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 SP3 and this type of a cached service?
Although we considered serving the mosaic dataset directly as an imagery service, for a variety of reasons (data access, end use of the service) that this option was not pursued at the time. These reasons remain, though may need to be reviewed if there is a compatibility issue.