I have ArcGIS Desktop 10.5.1 and ArcGIS for server 10.3.1 installed on different windows machines. I was told by my software provider, that I can publish all services although the versions are different. This is true for the most part, but I cannot publish a 10.5.1 images service from a mosaic dataset. The error windows shows a generic error, but the log files indicate the path in invalid. The path is however OK as I have checked it out from a Rastercatalog using the same data. Can anyone tell me what is going on here? Is 10.5.1 not able to publish imageservices from mosaics? I have published single rasters as an images service, so why not mosaics?
If you are publishing a Mosaic Dataset created with ArcMap 10.5+ to ArcGIS Server 10.3.1 this will fail and logs will report generic publishing errors (including the erroneous file path errors you noted). This is due to the fact that significant changes occurred at version 10.5+ for the Mosaic Dataset so it's not technically possible to publish a newer Mosaic Dataset to ArcGIS Server 10.3.1.
A defect is logged to update our documentation to explain this limitation: BUG-000109547: Update existing documentation to inform Users that publishing an Image Service from a mosaic dataset created with ArcMap/ArcCatalog 10.5+ to ArcGIS Server 10.3.1 is not technically possible