It looks like it might be related to statistics. Right-click the layer in ArcMap, and click Properties. One the Symbology tab, change the stretch to NONE. If this is the issue, then just remove the statistics from the image in your geodatabase. Right-click it in ArcCatalog or the Catalog window and click Properties. On the General tab, scroll to the Statistics. Click the Options dropdown arrow on the right and select the option to Clean Statistics.