I have moved sde to new instance of sql server 2012 (same version as it was moved from) and i know the problem is permissions related but am having hard time tracking problem down
Bryan, have you granted create procedure, create view, create table, create function to you data owner user? Also what is the geometry type that you used when you created the data, if you did not use side binary then this could be the problem.
Check the possibility that the login does not have 'sysadmin' server role on the new instance or vice versa.
Any login with sysadmin server role granted to it, uses the DBO schema. Other logins use the schema similar to their login names..