Through the App Integration, Workforce supports opening new survey forms when Survey123 is opened from Workforce. So, the workflow you are asking about would not be possible.
There is the option to store the url scheme for Survey123 into the Description field of an assignment. Unfortunately, due to a rather nasty issues that we're working on, the url scheme is only available on iOS.
If I understand your scenario correctly, you might consider using the survey123 inbox for this. Your supervisor's version of the form would have a query making sure that he receives only those records that you have already gone through. As an additional step for making sure he's notified of your submission, you could configure an email notification using webhooks.